The number of trade agreements has increased significantly since the early 1990s. Trade agreements cover more and more subjects and an average text of the treaty is now about ten times longer than it was 25 years ago. This makes it increasingly difficult to analyze the content of trade agreements and their impact on international trade and well-being. Big data and textual data methods can help researchers, policy makers and other stakeholders better manage the increasing complexity of trade agreements. To provide researchers with easy access to this type of data, UNCTAD has created, as part of a joint project with the Graduate Institute, the University of Ottawa and the European University of St. Petersburg, texts of trade agreements (ToTA), a public repository of HTML-based trade agreements. The “Texts of Trade Agreements” (ToTA) project provides scientists and policy makers with a complete, machine-readable and observational body of preferential trade agreements (ATPs) available to the public to scientists and policy makers and uses the most advanced textual data techniques to analyze it. Treating the texts of trade agreements as data can help us find better answers to many political issues, such as.B.: the original merchandise trade agreement, which is now incorporated into the 1994 GATT (see above) Explanatory Notes These calendars contain the obligations of each WTO member that allow certain foreign products or service providers to access their markets. Calendars are an integral part of the agreements. In the printed version, these calendars cover approximately 30,000 pages for all WTO members. What are the characteristics of trade agreements that are key to increasing trade? Under what conditions? Conditions, exceptions and concessions also contribute to the complexity of regulatory texts. As a result, the average text of the treaty is now about ten times longer than it was 25 years ago. What are the consequences of trade agreements on international trade? These are additional agreements negotiated after the Uruguay Round and annexed to the general agreement on trade in services.
There is no “first protocol.” The corresponding appointments can be ordered at the online bookstore. Trade agreements converge in regional or interregional clusters of similarly worded agreements A comparison of chapters and sections of trade agreements on the same subject. However, modern computational methods require the existence of machine-readable texts. While many databases provide PTA texts, they are generally optimized for reading, but not for computational analysis. As part of a one-year effort, the project used the WTO`s RTA database to locate the text and metadata of nearly 450 preferential trade agreements and convert them into a machine-readable format to analyze the article, chapter or level of the treaty of PTA texts. Text-as data methods include a large number of research instruments that allow us to gain new knowledge about trade agreements. For example, text-like measures are able to understand differences in the design of fine grain contracts. The so-called dimension reduction techniques, which compress the textual information contained in a text into a series of abstract variables, can help to predict more precisely the effects of trade agreements than the measures available so far. In this article, we present a new structured corpus of fully digitized PTA texts from the WTO RTA database and use textual data tools to represent the design of PTAs. We argue that textual similarities are particularly appropriate for understanding differences in contract design and we note that the concept of PTA comprises a number of very heterogeneous agreements, which systematically differ in scope, content and language.
[Read more] What do trade agreements between countries and regions look like? This makes it increasingly difficult to analyze and compare